Thursday, May 21, 2020

Stretching the Limits of the Constitution by Thomas Jefferson - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2668 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2019/08/08 Category People Essay Level High school Tags: Thomas Jefferson Essay Did you like this example? The Constitution was a document created in 1787 that is the supreme law of the United States. It was established to spell out the rights of the people, ensure their general welfare, and ensure checks and balances within the three branches of the government. The Constitution also explains specific limits in the power of the president. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Stretching the Limits of the Constitution by Thomas Jefferson" essay for you Create order Thomas Jefferson, author of the declaration of independence, was president from 1801-1809. Andrew Jackson, president from 1829-1837, was known for his skills in warfare and his belief in westward expansion. Abraham Lincoln, president during the civil war, was known for his strong belief in the natural rights of all people and his desire to slowly get rid of slavery while also preserving the union of the north and the south. Throughout each of these presidencies, controversial decisions had to be made in order to determine how to best represent the needs of the people and the needs of the country as a whole. Thus, although Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln were successful and transformative presidents, in order for them to carry out what they believed was better for the general will of the people and the country all three of them stretched the limits of the constitution. Thomas Jefferson stretched the limits of the constitution by allowing the purchase of the Louisiana territory. When Louisiana went from the hands of Spain to the hands of Napoleon, the genius military leader of France, fear ran through the U.S. To subdue this fear, Thomas Jefferson sent two envoys to buy New Orleans and any other accessible land to the east for under 10 million. However, Napoleon, who they met there decided to sell all of Louisiana, not just New Orleans. Thomas Jefferson was known for his strict interpretation of the Constitution which meant that he followed the constitution by the exact words of what was said. Therefore he was quick to admit that, The constitution has made no provision for our holding foreign territory, still less for incorporating foreign nations into our Union. Although the Constitution states that the executive branch has the power to make treaties it does not state that the president can then use these treaties to purchase land from foreign nations. In addition, the Constitution is silent about adding a foreign nation to the union. Evidently, the presidents ability without the joint effort of Congress, to decide matters of adding a vast expanse of foreign land, especially land that was already occupied by innumerable black, Indian and white inhabitants, was not constitutional. Despite his own questioning he completed the purchase and did not wait for a constitutional amendment to do so. Additionally, Thomas Jefferson stretched the limits of the constitution by taking military action without the approval of congress. Thomas Jefferson armed troops in response to when the captain of a british ship, the HMS leopard, opened fire because Americans refused to let the British search their ship. This act was unconstitutional because a president is not allowed to take war action without the approval of congress. Although the constitution describes the president to be the commander and chief of the army and Navy of the United States, congress is the branch given the power to declare war. It is evident that a declaration of war includes engaging the military with arms, or sending out troops as it says, Congress shall have Power To . . . provide for the common Defence The use of the word provide signifies that it is congress who can provide arms for the common defence, and not the president. Thomas Jefferson felt that he needed to stretch the limits of the constitution for reasons of expansion, wealth and to better represent what the people wanted. Jefferson did not wait for a constitutional amendment before completing the Louisiana Purchase because he knew if he were to wait Napoleon would have revoked the deal altogether. Thomas Jefferson explained that not gaining the Louisiana territory would be a huge loss for the country because the territory could serve as an important aids to our treasury, an ample provision for our posterity, and a wide-spread field for the blessings of freedom. With the benefits of expansion of territory, increased posterity for the nation, an increase in wealth and the now feasible possibility of an increasingly agrarian society, for Jefferson, the benefits seemed to outweigh the Constitution. In addition, Jefferson went through with this purchase in order to better carry out what the people wanted. In this case, there was overwhelming supp ort for Jefferson to complete the deal immediately, so this is what Jefferson did. Second, Thomas Jefferson stretched constitutional limits for reasons of the protection and safety of the people. For example, although Jefferson armed his troops, a unconstitutional act, he did so because American citizens were being shot at and an immediate response was necessary. If Jefferson had waited for congress approval, there was a greater chance for even more casualties. Andrew Jackson stretched the limits of the constitution by signing the Indian Removal Act. The Indian Removal Act gave the federal government the power to exchange valuable native-held land East of the Mississippi in exchange for land to the west. The reason Jackson argued that he had the power to engage in this policy was because he did not consider Indian tribes to be sovereign or separate from the United States. He reasoned that because they were not a sovereign nation, the treaties made between the United States and the Native Americans in the past, were not binding since a treaty has to be made between two sovereign nations. He believed that without a treaty proving that the Native Americans had claim to the land, the land then belonged to the United States. Jacksons reasoning and his signing of this act was unconstitutional, however, because in signing it, he was ignoring the supreme court ruling of The Worcester v. Georgia (1832) case. The case explained, that the Cherokee nation, one Native American tribe, was a sovereign nation as it was treated as such in multiple treaties made between the United States and the Native Americans in the past. According to the case, these treaties were then considered binding because when a treaty is made between two sovereign nations, treaties, like statutes, are considered to be the supreme law of the land. Building off this logic, this sovereign nation was not technically under the jurisdiction of the United States and thus the president had no claim to its land. It is evident that a president can not overrule a supreme court case because of the concept of judicial review which was established in Marbury vs Madison (1803). Judicial review was established by John Marshall who argued that acts made by congress and signed into law by the president are not considered law if they are in conflict with the constitution, and it is the supreme court that makes the final decision on whether an act is constitutional. With the power of judicial review, once the supreme court in the Worcester vs Georgia case ruled that claims to the land belonging to the Cherokees were invalid since the Cherokees were sovereign, the Indian Removal Act which was justified under the pretense that the Cherokees were not sovereign was in conflict with the Constitution. Furthemore, Andrew Jackson stretched the limits of the constitution in his actions regarding the National Bank. When the president of the bank, Nicholas Biddle along with Henry Clay, created a new charter of the national bank in 1832, Jackson, to Biddles surprise, vetoed the new charter. Although the president is permitted to veto a charter passed by congress, the constitution does not say that a president can overrule a supreme court decision. In this case, there was a supreme court case, Mcculloch vs Maryland (1819), in which, the national bank was ruled to be constitutional. Thus, Jacksons claim that the national bank was unconstitutional was void and was not a legitimate reason to use his presidential veto power. When Jackson later took further action to destroy the bank by removing all federal deposits from the federal bank without the approval of congress, the senate released a formal and public condemnation of his transgressions, known as a censure. After ignoring both the Supreme Court and Congress it became clear that Jackson was abusing his executive power. He seemed to work independently from the other branches, much like a king. In the political cartoon, King Andrew the First, which directly responded to Jacksons veto of the national bank, Jackson was illustrated as a king holding the veto in his hand while simultaneously stepping upon the constitution. This image depicts Jackson reigning over the people, instead of the people being represented and having authority. In addition, it depicts that carrying out this veto and removing the federal deposits were all at the expense of the constitution which lay on the ground in tatters. Even more so, it is evident from this illustration that Jackson was not following the constitution because he is drawn as a monarch and the constitution was created, in partial, to prevent monarchy. Instead Jackson ignored the Supreme Court and Congress who are supposed to have checks on the execu tive branch. Andrew Jacksons main reasons for stretching the limits of the constitution was to gain more wealth and property for the U.S, provide for the common man, and do what he claimed was in the best interest of the Native Americans. First, through his policies of expansion, he would be gaining the great deal of wealth beneath Cherokee, and other Native American tribes land. (128 Driven west) The land was literally considered to be laden with gold along with valuable livestock and other goods (128-130). This new found wealth and great deal of cheap property now available could help the common man which was a primary goal of Jacksons. This would help the common man, the working middle class, because there was now more opportunity for them to gain the newly available land, without spending a fortune. In addition, Jackson claimed that the land the Native Americans would be granted through the Indian Removal Act was an expansive republic , with prosperous towns and agriculture. He further expl ained that it is often beneficial to leave the land of ones birth in order to have a better life just as Jacksons parents travelled far in search of a better life. The combination of the land for the working class and new opportunity for the Native Americans, to Jackson, seemed like a legitimate reason to stretch the constitution. Abraham Lincoln stretched the limits of the constitution by suspending the right of Habeas Corpus. The writ of Habeas Corpus is the writ requiring a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court. This can be used for people that believe they are unlawfully detained, and want to have their arrest or detainment reevaluated. Abraham Lincoln defended his suspension of the Writ of Habeas Corpus because it was a time of war where public safety was at risk from various southern spies and suppliers. This was a legitimate defense because according to the constitution the writ of Habeas Corpus can be removed if public safety is threatened. What made this suspension unconstitutional, however, was that he enforced it through his own executive power without Congress. This is not permitted because this clause is in article one of the Constitution which deals with legislative powers, not executive powers. In other words, even if the argument could be made that this suspension wa s constitutional because he was doing so to protect the public safety, he should not have been enforcing this order, congress is the branch with that power. Furthermore, Lincoln limited the rights of the people by censoring freedom of the press. Freedom of the press is granted in the bill of rights. In amendment 1 it states, Congress shall make no law . . prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; Abraham Lincoln seemed to ignore this when he ordered newspapers critical of him to stop publishing and ultimately to be shut down He accomplished this by sending representatives to New York to meet with James Gordon Bennett, an American newspaper editor. Lincoln then bribed Bennet by offering him the position of U.S minister to France so that the criticisms he wrote about Lincoln would disappear. Bennet did not even accept the position but the bribe was successful and the critiques were almost all removed. Although congress was the branch specified in not being permitted to make laws prohibiting freedom of the press, it is implied that the president who enforces these laws, can not act in a way that prohibits freedom of the press. Moreover, Abraham Lincoln stretched the limits of the Constitution by issuing the Emancipation Proclamation. The Emancipation Proclamation held that all slaves held in the rebellious states (ones that threatened to secede from the union if slavery was abolished) were free. This was against the Constitution because the federal government was not allowed to eradicate slavery in states that it already existed. Lincolns own advisors, Salmon Chase and Montgomery Blair, thought that emancipation exceeded the scope of a presidents power. In fact, even the press criticized that Lincolns actions regarding the proclamation ignored that slaves were considered property protected under the Constitution. The Press wrote, With a dash of a pen it had destroyed four thousand millions of our property. In addition, the fugitive slave clause holds that a person held to service or labor who flees to another state must be returned to the owner in the state from which that person escaped. The fugitive slave clause in combination with the 5th amendment suggests that a slave, a person held to service or labor, is property and must be returned to its original owner because of its protection under the 5th amendment. Arguably, Lincolns actions violated this clause as well as the 5th amendment because once slaves were emancipated, they would not be returned to their owners. Abraham Lincoln stretched the limits of the Constitution because he felt it was necessary to protect the people, create a stronger government, and preserve the union. Lincoln explained that he did not wait for congress when issuing the suspension of Habeas Corpus and originally issued the writ himself because it was an urgent matter in which the safety of the people was at risk. He explained that it could not be possible that the constitution would encourage just letting the dancer run its course, when he as a president could immediately putting a stop to the danger or rebellion. Second, he issued the emancipation proclamation because in addition to it being considered right morally, it would make the South and North more unified. It would help preserve the union because the proclamation would decrease southern resistance since they would no longer have slaves forced to assist them and fight on their side. In addition, it strengthened the union because it encouraged newly freed slav es to join the war effort of the union army. Although the Constitution provides numerous checks on the presidents power Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson and Abraham Lincoln stretched the constitution and exceeded the presidential powers allowed in the Constitution in order to carry out what they believed was best for the country as a whole in their respective circumstances. Thomas Jefferson is considered responsible for the huge purchase of Louisiana and his arming of troops on the Chesapeake. Andrew Jackson is responsible for the controversial Indian Removal Act and his destruction of the National Bank. Finally, Abraham Lincoln is responsible for the removal of the writ of Habeas Corpus, the removal of freedom the press, and the Emancipation Proclamation. Although these actions all required stretching the Constitution they were done with the president keeping in mind what was best for the country as a whole. These early presidents set the tone for future presidents, who continue to assert an expansive, malleable interpretation of the limited executive powers granted by the Constitution.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Personal Experience on Microcultures - 911 Words

Most of my feelings I have towards microcultures are all based of personal experiences. I think everyone always has some sort of feelings that come to mind when they see or interact with a certain microculture and I am no exception. When it comes to rich people, I feel annoyed, envy, and optimistic. I sometimes wish I had a lot of money and that feeling makes me optimistic about my future. I think rich people are greedy because even though they have a lot of money already, all they want is more. I also think rich people often believe they are superior to others because of their money. They think because they are rich that they are above everyone else. These feelings and opinions come from personal experiences I have dealt with before. I†¦show more content†¦I had a friend who told me stories of his family living in a car, eating only rice and bread for days but when I did not have money for lunch, he always offered a dollar. That right there is someone who cares more about o thers than himself. This happen multiple times it was not just one time thing. To me poor people offer help to others than some rich people. Towards African American people I feel frightened, sorry, and easy going. I never mess with African American people because I feel they could instantly beat me up if they wanted to, so I try not to insult them in any way. Also black people get so much hate and criticism that I sometimes feel sorry for them and some of the stuff they have to deal with. I think African American people are sore losers and aggressive. When they start losing in sports especially football and basketball, some start trash talking and playing dirty. In high school when I played with some of friends in basketball versus 5 black people, they started pushing us, slapping our arms when we shoot, calling fouls when nothing even happened just because they were losing. I think that anyone hates to lose, but black people get angrier than most people and start resorting to viol ence as the answer. This does not happen every single time but when it occurs multiple times you start to judge by those experiences. When it comes to Asians, I feel at ease, annoyed, and fear. Asians always seemed to be people who are calm and neverShow MoreRelatedTraveling Is An Elegant And Beautiful Experience852 Words   |  4 Pages(Anthony Bourdain) Traveling is an elegant and beautiful experience. It breaks the uniformity of life and opens people’s minds to different cultures. According to Merriam-Webster, a traveler is â€Å"someone who often travel†. Putting it in my own language, a traveler is someone who respects different cultures. He chooses this activity as an ideal way to relax and explore different places and foods. 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How Ot Manage Stress Free Essays

How to manage stress When it comes to how to manage stress, there are loads of methods to deal with this problem. Today, with the increasing number of people getting overwhelmed pressure on their study or job, more and more people are paying their attention to how to solve stress problem more effectively. In this essay, we are going to talk about how to manage people’s stress physically and emotionally. We will write a custom essay sample on How Ot Manage Stress or any similar topic only for you Order Now 1. How to manage stress physically Engaging with people’s pressure in physical method means to do some regular physical exercise or sport in order to reduce stress, such as yoga, walking, gardening or any other physical exercise that people like. The purpose is to make people have time and space to release themselves into a peaceful relaxation. The following method will show that. 1. 1Regular Exercise Doing some regular exercise such as Yoga, gardening, working, jogging or any other physical activities that people like after work or study are able to lower people’s heart rates, blood pressure and oxygen consumption (Treven, Treven, Zizek, 2011). In addition, it also will let your physical body into a state of peaceful relaxation. 1. 2 A Deep Breath This is the simplest method to deal with stress that people have. All people need to do is climbing a top of the mountain, then have a sit, try to get rig of all the trouble inside your mind. 2. How to manage stress emotionally 2. 1 Release of Emotions The reason why a plenty of people who are suffer from the overwhelmed pressure is that they always keep their stress inside mind instead of pouring it out. So at this point, people need toâ€Å"letting off some steam†(Donvan, 1991), which means expressing emotion to others. Communication with closed friends or colleague is a good way to heal issue of pressure, on the other hand, people are also able to chat with parents and family relatives, who are understand each other easily than anyone. Under this circumstance, people would put themselves into harmony surroundings, so the pressure will disappear immediately. 2. 2 Getting assistance from the social support Firstly, people could search help from the professional institution which focus on studying on stress. In this manner, people will find out their original issue of pressure as soon as possible, and then listen advises from the professional experts. In addition, marriage is also a way to deal with manage, according to the survey from a double who all earn money, women with spouse will heal quicker from the daily stress than the woman who don’t have one(Novotney,2008 as cited in Treven, Treven, Zizek,2011 ). 2. 3 Letting go Mostly, people will feel stressful because of the heavy workload, Andrew Weil, the natural health guru, said thatâ€Å"individual should get rid of what he can spare†(Wei, 1997 as cited in Treven, Treven, Zizek,2011 ), which means people should throw away the unimportant things, people should make their life more simpler and easier instead of being complicated. Conclusion In general, it is divided into two separated section about how to manage stress, physically and emotionally. Taking a deep breath at a high place and engaging some regular exercise belong to physically section. Releases emotions, getting help from professional and throw away the unimportant things belong to emotional section. People should select the proper technique for managing stress wisely according their own needs. How to cite How Ot Manage Stress, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

What Is Computer Graphics Essay Example For Students

What Is Computer Graphics Essay Computer GraphicsWhen I think of art I think of great artists of the past. Artists that have spent practically all their lives to produce visually stunning pieces of work. Artists such as Michelangelo, who spent 15 years of his life to finalize a painting on the ceiling of the St. Peters Cathedral. When I think of art, I think of the legendary sculptures of the classical era. Artists then envisioned a final work from a block of stone. However, It is very difficult for me to consider a person who sits in front of a computer and plays with a pre-programmed software as an artist. As narrow as that statement may sound, In my opinion, it seems true and to the point. My sophmore year at Seton Hall I assumed an art class, Art of the Western World. I took the class because like most classes at the University, I needed it fulfill my requirements. However, by the end of the semester I was amazed about art, more so then I ever was. We will write a custom essay on What Is Computer Graphics specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now In fact, I have never cared about art before in my life. But the class acquired my eyes to appreciate artistic objects around me. I began to realize that art is a long and difficult process. A skill that requires great determination and perfection. Early painters had to face the difficulties of paint drying too fast or the paper fading. Besides that, I witnessed how the great sculptures imagined the final work before it was even begun. Initially, they started from a block of stone or marble, having to carve out each and every layer. I was amazed, I could not imagine how long or difficult this could be. How long it must have took to create certain final works was incredible and for what, the mere satisfaction and thrill?Maybe it is because artists of the past did not have breakthrough technology like we do today. Because if they did, then it is possible they would have taken easier routes to complete their work. But, todays computer graphic designers have it much easier in my opinion. Granted, they too have to spend long hours learning the functions of a program. However, the software has been premade by other programmers. So how can u consider yourself an artist when you are using someone elses program in which you are limited to what the programmer has installed. You cannot go beyond for this matter. You can only create what the program allows you to. My basis is that computer graphics designers already have a three-dimensional world to create images in. Where as, traditional artists did not. If a painter wanted to create an image where a person was walking away from the picture, the artist had to create that image and all the indications so that the person looks like he or se is walking away from us. The painter has to create the three-dimensional image him or her self. A computer graphics designer already has the 3D image there and only needs to create the person and objects around it. First off, a computer artist must understand all the tools and functionalities of the program in order to create images. It is quite possible that it could take a person a decade to learn most, if not all, the tools and functions of a particular program. Computer graphics gives a person all the tools they need to express themselves. It gives a person the ability to create certain things with simple mouse clicks. For the first time, it is possible to convey the bottom of our dreams and really visualize the creatures that live in it. It is efficient, extremely creative, but very controversial. Computer graphics allows room for error. .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a , .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a .postImageUrl , .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a , .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a:hover , .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a:visited , .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a:active { border:0!important; } .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a:active , .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ufafb87df5f15196e368676649904027a:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Diabetes Essay Now should that validate whether or not it should be included as an art form? Traditional artists did not have margin for error. Well not as much at least. Traditional artists could paint over an error to cover up a mistake or they could carve out an extra piece to make the error look not as drastic. But it is quite evident that they could only make few mistakes before the work would have to be redone or start all over. However, in computer graphics one has the freedom to constantly make errors and the ability to erase or undo them unlimitedly. The magic of computers works wonders in this way. There is an apparent difference between a novice computer graphics designer and an expert. Just like there is between a child who paints his or her first picture and a painter who paints the Mona Lisa. Both are artists in a sense. Both have created images from a stroke of a brush. Both have created something from nothing. So the difference is visible between a person who creates his or her first computer generated scene and one that has generated thousands of scenes. It comes down to practice and time. Getting to know your equipment. In this case, getting to know the tools and software. But, to me I just dont see the fine line of when you can actually label someone as a computer artist if in fact you choose to do so. I think that computers are doing more of the action. I just see it in a way where the software is more important than the actual person. Where as traditional art is the complete opposite. I am in no way putting down the artistic presence of computer graphics. Computers vastly affect the final product in ways that humans could not have done before. The final image could be so realistic that it is mind blowing to the human eye. Not even the finest artists of the past could have portrayed such an image no matter how skilled they were. Computers are the future of our society and computer graphics will continue to improve upon what the human is capable of; distorting, fixing, and altering an image the artist produces. Seeming so realistic, that the public only can admire and accept it.Take, for instance, the images I have attached. Two simple images, in my opinion, but it is clear on how a computer improves upon an image. Ways in which u can reflect light or create shadows are so ideal that it is almost too perfect in my eyes. The Bathroom Sink image is very glossy to the point where you can actually believe that the image is real or even right in front of you. Traditional artists could not have completed an image to this extent. No matter how realistic they could attempt to make it, the paints, paper, or tools could not allow it. No matter how three-dimensional they can get, they could not reflect the light or create the texture of the objects to seem real. It would look rougher and the colors would not be as well defined. Another example is the Ocean image. Although in this image, there was not as much help from a computer standpoint. The artist took a photograph and applied some alterations to the clouds, water, and light. But again, without the help of a computer, the image would not look as sharp. In images like this, only small and few alterations are needed to advance upon what the initial image looked like, creating a more ideal image. See Attached Images:It is quite possible that I have not had enough presence with computer graphic programs to understand all the artistic functions it has to offer. But I have been introduced to it enough for me to base my opinion on whether or not it is an art form. .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b , .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b .postImageUrl , .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b , .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b:hover , .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b:visited , .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b:active { border:0!important; } .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b:active , .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u15678d11b0c986176a21ed9fb38fd56b:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Pornification in fashion Essay The fact that I have been exposed to traditional art helps me understand true fine art, if there is such a thing. I am not denying the capability of computer-generated images in any way. I do realize that computer software is an advanced instrument and a modern day form of expression with an unlimited amount of potential. Nevertheless, At least to this period of its existence, labeling computer graphics as Fine Art is a stretch.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Observational research Essay Essays

Observational research Essay Essays Observational research Essay Essay Observational research Essay Essay Experimental research. besides known as field research. pertains to a research attack that engages in the direct recording of a phenomenon as it occurs in its natural status ( Zechmeister et al. . 2003 ) . This research attack is distinguishable from the other research methods because it employs a quasi-artificial scenario that is comprised of a figure of factors. of which some could be controlled. The capacity to command at least one of the factors in the environment allows the research worker to execute the scientific method that would reply the developed hypothesis. Observational research could be performed utilizing any of the three classified types of experimental techniques. The covert type of experimental research involves unidentified research workers that straight interact with the survey participants and remain undetected until the completion of the probe. In other instances. the research workers are positioned at a distance from the survey participants. yet are still capable of direct observation of the actions and interactions that each of the survey participants engages in. One advantage of this type of experimental research attack is that the survey participants are non required to collaborate with the research worker. The namelessness of the research worker in the scenario provides survey participants to freely show themselves and to liberally do determinations without being influenced by the research worker. Unfortunately. it is besides possible that certain ethical misdemeanors could be related to this type of experimental attack. chiefly as a signifier of misrepresentation that is associated with the researchers’ namelessness. The open type of experimental research allows the research workers to place themselves to the survey participants. In add-on. the research workers are besides required to to the full unwrap the intent of their probe to the survey participants. One disadvantage that is strongly associated with the open type of experimental research is the impact of the revelation on the behaviour of the survey participants during the full experimental period. It is really natural for an person to be alert of their actions when they are cognizant that at least one person is detecting their behaviour. As such. the survey participant exerts attempt in projecting the ideal personality that is acceptable to the eyes of the perceiver and decidedly non brooding of the existent personality of the survey participant. However. it should be understood that in this type of experimental research attack. there would be no ethical issues related to misrepresentation of the survey participants because the individuality and the ends of the research worker have been disclosed early on. Researcher engagement is another experimental type of research attack that engages the research worker in the scenario that is being studied. One advantage of this type of experimental technique is that the research worker is allowed to straight interact and to straight appreciate an incident that is being studied. Aside from taking notes of the effects and reactions of the survey participants. the research worker besides interacts with the remainder of the scenario and respects himself as another survey participant in the probe. One disadvantage of this experimental type is that the research worker may lose path of the ends of his research survey because he becomes highly engrossed in the activities happening in the survey scenario. In the experimental survey described in this unit. the covert attack was employed. wherein the research worker straight interacted with 50 survey participants with their cognition of his function and his ends in the interaction. In add-on. the survey participants are incognizant that they are being observed in footings of their attitudes and responses to a specific stimulation or scene. The research worker therefore chooses to project a smiling stance as he talks to 50 persons and he takes note of the response of each of the survey participants during his exchange with them. The research worker so rates the response of each of the survey participants as really friendly. friendly or impersonal.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Keep Going - An Interview With Two #1 Amazon Bestsellers

Keep Going - An Interview With Two #1 Amazon Bestsellers "Keep Going" - An Interview with #1 Amazon Bestsellers Mark Edwards and Louise Voss Success doesn’t happen overnight. It is often the result of hard work put in over the years. And Mark Edwards and Louise Voss’ success story tells us as much. They are known for being the first indie authors to ever reach #1 on back in 2011. Now with Amazon Publishing, their latest book is From The Cradle (and the best one, they tell me). Their story begins much sooner, though. They have been through the ups and downs that characterize a writer’s life, but they have been through them together and always determined to keep going.Today, we have the pleasure of interviewing both of them. They share their whole story (not only the success part) and their advice for starting indie authors. They also debunk a metadata-myth, analyze why Amazon Publishing is so powerful and explain how to co-write a book using Dropbox.So sit down with a nice cup of tea/coffee, and hit play. Or alternatively, read through the whole transcript below (courtesy of the Reedsy team). REEDSY: Hi Mark and Louise, I’m really pleased to have you here. You are known for being the first indie authors to have reached the top of the charts on, a few years ago, with two books that you had co-written. But your collaboration started long before that, right Louise?LOUISE: Sure, it’s a good story, though it can make me sound a bit like a stalker. It started years ago, around 1998-99, and Mark was on this TV documentary about â€Å"wannabe writers†. I was in the exact same situation as him: I had an agent but she wasn’t very enthusiastic. We were both getting lots of rejections but they were really positive rejections. So I just sent him a little email via his agent, basically saying â€Å"I really liked your interview†.He wrote back, and we started corresponding via email about books and writing for around 18 months before we finally met in person. And then we thought: rather than just critiquing each other’s stuff, why d on’t we write something together? That’s when we started writing Killing Cupid. We did it all by email, because at that time Mark was in Japan.MARK: Yes, I was in Tokyo, and Louise was in London. We wrote an entire novel without even speaking to each other, literally. This was back in 2001, and Killing Cupid was optioned by the BBC but we didn’t manage to get a publishing deal for it.Then, a few years after, I came back from Japan and we decided to write another one together: Catch Your Death. Back then, however, we didn’t have an agent, we still couldn’t get a publisher, we were really back to square one, so we pretty much gave up at that point, didn’t we?LOUISE: Yes, I think the problem with Killing Cupid was a genre one. When we sent it to publishers, they said â€Å"well, it’s not really enough of a thriller to be a thriller; and it’s a comedy as well, we don’t know what to do with it†¦Ã¢â‚¬  And that’s why we decided to write Catch Your Death, because that was unquestionably a thriller.MARK: Yes, so we both more or less gave up. I came back to the UK, got a good job, and thought: it’s really not worth the pain of trying to find a publishing deal.Then, 2010 when was I first heard about KDP. And I got a Kindle for my 40th birthday. So I said to Louise: why don’t we take our two old novels, spruce them up a bit, self-publish them and see what happens? And she was very reluctant.LOUISE: Yes, I thought â€Å"oh, no, it will be humiliating, we’ll sell 4 copies†¦Ã¢â‚¬ MARK: So we spent a few months rewriting and reworking them, because they were really out of date. There were no mobile phones, social media, etc.We put Killing Cupid out in February 2011, and as Louise predicted we sold around 4 copies on our first day, to people that we knew†¦ But then I became completely obsessed about trying to sell it. I had a full-time job, my girlfriend was pregnant, and she still talks about how I neglected her during that time! And Louise did promotion stuff too.LOUISE: Yes, we had a list of all the bloggers that accepted unpublished books - there weren’t that many of them but we put together this list and divided it up. Mark started at A and I started at Z and we worked our way to the middle, contacting all of them. It was a lot of work.REEDSY: And Mark, you did a very good job on the metadata too, right? I read about it on Joanna Penn’s blog, but maybe you can tell us what in your metadata helped make your book successful?MARK: Yes, we used subtitles. On Killing Cupid, I think it was pretty simple: â€Å"Killing Cupid, a psychological thriller†: nothing fancy, really. But we kept rewriting the blurb (book description). Back then, you used to be able to see what percentage of people who viewed your book had bought it, which was fantastic, you could see your conversion rate from browser to reader. So I kept looking at th e books in the top 10, especially the self-published thrillers and the ones that had the highest conversion rates, and tried to figure out what it was about those books that incited more people to buy them after they looked at them.So I was continually tweaking the description and I think that at one point I got it right, because it suddenly doubled our sales in just an hour. I had made the description shorter, more straightforward about the book while also making it sound more intriguing.We did something much more interesting for the second book, Catch Your Death. We called it: â€Å"Catch Your Death (For fans of Dan Brown Stieg Larsson)†. This quickly became a controversial point, with people starting to talk about it in The Bookseller magazine.But I actually believe, to this day, that it didn’t make any difference to the sales, because I think we put off as many people as we attracted. If you searched for Dan Brown at the time (and I did it quite a few times), our book didn’t come up, not even on page 30. It didn’t make any difference to the search results.What really made a difference, and this is a lesson for all indie authors, is that we were patient and hardworking in building a readership. We hand-sold every copy of Killing Cupid in the first 3-4 months: every single sale was hard work. And as we did that, we built a momentum and started climbing up the charts, which made our book more visible. And because it was good, word-of-mouth really worked in our advantage and more people started to buy it.We released Catch Your Death around 3-4 months after Killing Cupid, as Killing Cupid was climbing into the top 100. And Amazon then sent out an email advertising Catch Your Death to all the people who had previously purchased Killing Cupid.And it was the day that this email went out - even though we only realized this quite a long time afterwards - that more and more readers started buying both books and we shot up into the top 1 0. A couple of days later, Amazon removed the Dan Brown subtitle, and it didn’t make any difference at all.So there was a lot of hype about our metadata at that time, but I really don’t think it made any difference in the end. It was all about slowly building that readership.REEDSY: I think that’s a great lesson indeed for indie authors. But if we go back to the writing process, Louise, how does that technically work? What tools do you use: Google Drive, Dropbox, †¦?LOUISE: Dropbox, we have everything in Dropbox. It works really well for us, you can see the last things people have worked on and when. Though sometimes it happened that we were both working on the same document at the same time, so when we saved it created conflicted copies, which are a nightmare to sort out. But we don’t do that so much now, we’ve got better at it.We also email a lot, and text, when it’s particularly urgent, but we don’t actually talk that much, un less there is a problem, or in the beginning and the end, when there are things to figure out.MARK: For Dropbox, we have a â€Å"master document† - we do it all in Word - and we write separate chapters in separate Word documents, save them into Dropbox for the other person to make comments. The original author then goes back to that chapter to amend it and when we’re both happy with it we add it to the master document!We also have other Word documents and spreadsheets for our chapter plans. I think that, ideally, we’d use Scrivener, because that’s what we both write on for our solo novels, but you can’t really use it for collaborative work, as far as I’ve been able to work out.REEDSY: Now, with the success of Killing Cupid and Catch Your Death, you were prompted to partner with an agent, who got you into traditional publishing. How was that experience?LOUISE: It’s quite ironic, because we spent years trying to get a publishing deal for both books. But we didn’t have an agent at all until we were #1 on Amazon. I was talking with an author friend of mine and he suggested me to contact his agent. I said â€Å"well, he turned us down a few years ago so I don’t think he’ll be interested†. He answered â€Å"oh, it’s different now, you’re #1†. So we contacted his agent and he quickly got us a deal with HarperCollins, which was fantastic! I don’t regret it, really, because it was just so lovely to finally have this public validation through a traditional publishing deal, and the idea to have our books in shops, the advance, etc.I often wonder, with the benefit of hindsight, whether we would do it differently if we had to do it again, and I don’t think we would change much, other than to get more involved in the marketing and publicity of these traditionally published books. We were thinking that the publisher would do most of the marketing and promotion, a nd it didn’t happen. So I think our mistake wasn’t taking the deal, it was not pushing the books as much as we had when we were self-publishing.MARK: Louise literally just took the words out of my mouth. I definitely don’t regret it either, it was â€Å"a dream come true†. Louise had already had a traditional publishing deal in the past, but for me it was something I’d wanted for years.LOUISE: Yes, I guess I was a bit more cynical about it, because I already had had an experience with a publisher who dropped me after not promoting the books - and that was back in the day when you could do little yourself. But I still don’t regret it, we had a lovely editor, who did an excellent editorial work, really improving the books. It’s just that not many people got to see them.MARK: Yes, that was the frustrating thing. What happened is that after the first and second books didn’t do as well as they hoped, the third and fourth ones were pretty much dead in the water.LOUISE: It basically took the exact same trajectory as my first publishing deal: sales got smaller and smaller and the publisher’s interest got smaller and smaller. Also, one thing to take into account is that two of the four books had already been self-published before and picked up by a lot of people. So I think that didn’t help us as much as we thought it would.MARK: That was the problem, really. Catch Your Death and Killing Cupid came out a year after we first self-published them, which means the sequel to Catch Your Death came a year and a half after the first book, and by then, everyone had lost interest. And it wasn’t pushed at all, it wasn’t in any shops, it had no visibility.I actually think that we were a little bit like guinea pigs, because we were the first â€Å"indies† to go through that process over here in the UK. The publishers learned from what happened with us for some of the following indie success stories that they picked up.REEDSY: So you were with a publisher that didn’t do as much as you hoped on the marketing side of things. But now you’re with Amazon, right? Which is almost the opposite.MARK: Yes, but there is a stage in between. In January 2013, we were in a dark place. We’d had a very disappointing 2012 with the two paperbacks, and when the third one came out in January it just disappeared without a trace. Literally without trace, it left nothing.I had gambled by quitting my job to be a full-time writer, and I was in a very difficult financial position, with massive tax and credit card bills, plus my wife and I had another baby on the way. So I really was in a state of constant panic, thinking â€Å"what am I going to do?† I can laugh about it now, but it was terrible at that time. Every now and again I think â€Å"I can’t believe I managed to get myself out of that dark pit that I was in†.I remember Louise and I had this meeti ng with our agent in London and he - now, he would probably deny it - but he had lost a bit of interest in us as well. But we were determined to make it work so we decided we would not give up, and start a new series of books instead.Now, I had this book â€Å"The Magpies† that I had had sitting in my bottom drawer for years, and I’d been tinkering with it, on and off. Louise said: â€Å"why don’t you just do it, just self-publish it?† So I went home that day, read through it, and thought â€Å"actually, this is quite good†. So I self-published The Magpies via my agent (it’s called â€Å"agent-assisted self-publishing†) and it basically completely transformed everything, because The Magpies ended up selling (in its self-published version) 170,000 copies. It simply changed my life, and it’s what led to the deal with Amazon.Amazon Publishing bought the rights for it and for another solo novel from me. And when Louise and I fini shed our new co-written one, it did go out in submission to various publishers, but Amazon pre-empted it and our commissioning editor there read it in a few days. They made an offer, and because I’d had such a great experience with them already, Louise thought: â€Å"why not?†Everything so far with Amazon Publishing has been fantastic. I mean, I’d like to sell more books in the US, but in the UK it couldn’t have gone any better I think.REEDSY: Yes, and we actually interviewed another Amazon-published author, Bob Mayer, a few weeks ago who highlighted the â€Å"marketing reach† of Amazon publishing imprints. What does that mean exactly? What do these imprints do in terms of marketing that makes it worth it signing away royalties to them?MARK: Well, they’ve got the most amazing database in the world. They’ve got anyone who has ever bought anything, including anyone who has ever read a psychological thriller! That’s what sets them apart from all the other publishers. Plus, they’ve got the platform of their website, and they also do a lot of on-device marketing. So if you’ve got a Kindle Fire, you’ll see that whenever you turn it on, an advert will appear on the home screen, and they rotate, but they’re often books.That visibility that you get with Amazon publishing is just fantastic. The restriction of being with them is that you’re pretty much only on the Amazon platform, although they do print books and they are making efforts to get them into the shops. But they’re not on any of the other digital stores, so you’re in kind of a walled garden, like a luxury gated development!When somebody from a big publisher said to us: â€Å"well, wouldn’t you rather be with a traditional publisher and have your books in the shops?†, my answer was that that all sounds great, but when we did have that opportunity, our books were barely in the shops anyway†¦REEDSY: So, do you now still produce some marketing effort yourselves or is it all Amazon?LOUISE: We’ve worked very hard on building up our Facebook page. It’s not like we have tens of thousands of followers, but the ones we do have are so loyal that it’s really helping us get the word of mouth thing going, which is the holy grail of marketing anyway. But we still do work very hard, especially when we do online launches.REEDSY: To finish on an encouraging note for other authors out there: you’ve been through everything, both of you, in a writer’s career; the ups, the downs, so what would be your advice for an author who’d be in a â€Å"dark year† like you had in 2012?MARK: I think it’s certainly nurturing your existing fans and readers. That is what goes through in our Facebook group, where we have really loyal readers as Louise pointed out. They were really really helpful and acting as cheerleaders to keep us going. And then when we did start selling well, they were there and helped spread the word.REEDSY: And Louise, what would be your advice?LOUISE: Keep going!We lost the rest of Louise’s advice due to recording problems, but feel free to ask her (or Mark) anything in the comments below!Sharing is caring, so here are our Twitter handles: @ReedsyHQ, @mredwards and @LouiseVoss1

Friday, February 14, 2020

Analyzing langguage Communities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Analyzing langguage Communities - Essay Example The modern society has developed a different meaning of the term queer in comparison to what was known two decades ago. The society viewed gay, lesbians, and bisexuals as individuals who had queer character traits. The morals of lesbians, gays or bisexuals were queer to the society. In many cases, the society would refer to these groups of people as queer. In response to this term, the gay, lesbians and bisexuals decided to defiantly apply this name. The term queer loses its original meaning when gay; lesbians or the bisexuals feel that the term is okay with them. It has become a common language in the streets. Some gays or lesbians respond to it by claiming that they teach the straight people how to dress or introduce new fashion to the straight people in the society. Whenever the gays or lesbians react in this manner, the term queer does not seem to have a negative impact or meaning to their morals. I think that in trying to cope with the humiliation brought by the term, they have resorted into mocking the society or the straight people. History indicates that lesbian and gay activists started using queer in 1980s as a self-identification. On the contrary, it did not appear to them as an insult, but as a means that promoted their motives to the society. When lobbying for their activities and principles in the society, the activists propagated the name to identify themselves as people who are queer to the society. It is true that their moral is queer, as the name would seem to suggest. The continuous or the public use of the term queer by the lesbians, gays, and bisexuals has led to erosion of the real meaning of the term. Notably, the society would adopt names according to the immediate meaning. The next generation may not know the genesis of the term queer, but would adopt it in their normal language usage. Many people still feel that queer is a term that insults on the behavior or the conduct of an individual. This especially applies when the individual in question belong to the gay or lesbian community. The term has a greater harm to the individual especially in an environment where people associate the term to gay or lesbian practices. Some people may not treat any insult lightly; it might result into shady show in the streets. The insulted individual may decide to retort back by hulling abusive words. The society regards a name as an important tool that markets a character. Any situation that taints the name of an individual may elicit heated reactions. Culturally, gay or lesbians have no place in the society. People who advocate for good cultural practices believe that gay or lesbians have raped good morals. The social acceptance of an individual in the society depends of cultural inclination of the society. Queer means cultural rejection of a particular trait of an individual. Names given to events or occurrences define the social values of the community. Gay and lesbians value their characters in contrasts to the society. The so ciety attributes the term queer to a lost value or something that is worthless. Each individual would wish to have some value in the society. Gay and lesbians exert their worthiness in the society by identifying themselves using this term. In the past the term elicited negative reaction, but today it has taken a new drift. Gay and lesbian lobbyist